Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either if the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or if the body can not effectively use it. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar beiing resposible for the glucose transport into the cell. Hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar) is a common consequence of uncontrolled diabetes and leads to serious damage in nerves and blood vessels.

The prevalence of diabetes between 1980 and 2014 went from 108 million (4.7%) people into 422 million (8.5%) people. This number increases more in low and middle-income countries.

Diabetes leads to many diseases and handicaps such as blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and amputation of the lower limbs.

1.5 million deaths in 2012 were traced back directly to diabetes, to hyperglycemia even 2.2 million death. According to WHO diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in the year 2030.

DIABETES TYPE 1

In diabetes type 1 the insulin production is reduced so patients are insulin dependent.

DIABETES TYPE 2

Diabetes type 2 is caused by insulin resistance and patients are not insulin dependent.

PHA & DIABETES

The PHA enables a more personalized treatement and promotes self management of Diabetes.

Diabetes type 1

The cause of this type of diabetes is not known. Some of the symptoms of diabetes type 1 are excessive urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision and fatigue.

Diabetes type 2

The majority of people with diabetes have diabetes type 2. Distinct global estimates of diabetes prevalence for type 1 and type 2 do not exist because it is not always easy to differentiate the types. Type 2 diabetes results from obesity and physical inactivity and shows symptoms similar to those of type 1 diabetes which are usually less pronounced. Previously this type was also called diabetes of elderly but the disease is now more and more also often found in children.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes, which develops often during pregnancy, is hyperglycaemia with blood glucose levels above the normal range but below the diagnostic relevant values for diabetes. For women with gestational diabetes there is an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth and affected mothers and children have an increased risk to develop a diabetes type 2 in the future.

CONSEQUENCES OF DIABETES

Diabetes causes many diffrent diseases. About 44% of chronic kidney diseases, 17% of ischaemic diseases, 10% of stokes ans 21% of tuberculosis are caused by high fasting plasma glucose. Diabetes further leads to many complications such as blindness and limb ambutations, especially the legs.

The "WHO Global report on diabetes" gives an overview of the prevalence of diabetes, intervention measures and recommendations for governments and individuals: http://www.who.int/entity/diabetes/global-report/en/index.html

PHA AND DIABETES

By using the PHA the patient can be monitored efficiently and advised by health experts. This empowers the patient and allows him to self manage diabetes. The PHA recognizes the need of long term lifestyle change and support the patients along the process in order to avoid or reduce chronic complications.